AUSTRALIEN Work and Travel / Backpacker aus Deutschland has 66, members. BITTE LESEN: In dieser Gruppe dreht sich alles rund um das. Want diversity? Get yourself to Australia. The pristine beaches, rugged terrain and bustling coastal cities in this part of the world are the living embodiment of variety.
The eVisitor is a new travel authorisation available to European Union passport holders who wish to travel to Australia. With international airports in each state, Australia is well connected with the rest of the world and getting around in Oz is easy with domestic flights taking you even into the most remote areas.
With our vast Outback, ancient forests, beautiful marine environments and unique wildlife, Australia offers countless opportunities for adventure seekers. You'll find unique wildlife and spectacular landscapes, including many national parks and World Heritage Areas.
Discover ancient rainforests on the fringes of modern cities, climb snow-capped mountains and swim in some of the purest water on earth. Summer in Australia, from December to February, is a great time to get outdoors. Alternatively, take a winter sun holiday. Australia's seasons are at opposite times to those in the northern hemisphere. Australia is divided into three separate time zones: Explore the many different types of tours on offer in Australia and links to the accredited tourism operators who provide them.
Want to travel in a group, make your own way around independently, find family-friendly ideas or have the ultimate romantic honeymoon? These tours will help you plan your perfect holiday by coach, train, car or camel.
We have boutique hotels and backpackers, luxury resorts and self-serviced apartments, rustic country pubs and camping. You can expect friendly service and the best standards in whichever budget range you choose. Or, instead, head south and follow the spectacular coastal route from Sydney to Melbourne, then the Great Ocean Road to Bells Beach, lush national parks and the majestic Twelve Apostles. Sail through the idyllic Whitsundays or immerse yourself in the uncrowded beauty of Tasmania's rugged West Coast.
Nature is always on your doorstep in Australia, with national parks and 19 World Heritage-listed sites to discover. The Australian mining sector is reliant upon rail to transport its product to Australia's ports for export. Road transport is an essential element of the Australian transport network, and an enabler of the Australian economy. There is a heavy reliance on road transport due to Australia's large area and low population density in considerable parts of the country.
Another reason for the reliance upon roads is that the Australian rail network has not been sufficiently developed for a lot of the freight and passenger requirements in most areas of Australia. This has meant that goods that would otherwise be transported by rail are moved across Australia via road trains. Almost every household owns at least one car , and uses it most days. Australia has the second highest level of car ownership in the world. It has three to four times more road per capita than Europe and seven to nine times more than Asia.
Australia also has the third highest per capita rate of fuel consumption in the world. Melbourne is the most car-dependent city in Australia , according to a data survey in the s. Having over , more cars driving to and from the city each day than Sydney.
Perth, Adelaide and Brisbane are rated as being close behind. All these capital cities are rated among the highest in this category in the world car dependency.
There are 3 different categories of Australian roads. They are federal highways, state highways and local roads. Victoria has the largest network, with thousands of arterial major, primary and secondary roads to add.
The majority of road tunnels in Australia have been constructed since the s to relieve traffic congestion in metropolitan areas, or to cross significant watercourses. Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide have extensive commuter rail networks which have grown and expanded over time.
Sydney Trains operates the busiest system in the country with approximately 1 million trips per day. Metro Trains Melbourne operates a larger system albeit with a lower number of trips. Trams have historically operated in many Australian towns and cities, with the majority of these being shut down before the s in the belief that more widespread car ownership would render them unnecessary. Melbourne is a major exception and today has the largest tram network of any city in the world.
Adelaide also retained one tram service - the Glenelg tram , since extended from onwards to Hindmarsh and the East End. A modern light rail system opened in Sydney in with the conversion of a disused section of a freight railway line into what is now part of the Dulwich Hill Line.
A light rail system opened on the Gold Coast in Other light rail systems are scheduled to open in in Newcastle and Canberra. Major cities in Australia do not currently have full-fledged rapid transit systems, however a driverless rapid transit system in Sydney is currently under construction with completion of its first stage in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth's commuter systems are all partially underground and reflect some aspects of typical rapid transit systems, particularly in the city centres.
The following table presents an overview of multi-modal intra-city public transport networks in Australia's larger cities. The only Australian capital cities without multi-modal networks are Canberra and Darwin , which rely entirely on buses. Canberra is building a light rail line , which will link with existing bus services, and is scheduled to open in Rail transport started in the various colonies at different dates. Privately owned railways started the first lines, and struggled to succeed on a remote, huge, and sparsely populated continent, and government railways dominated.
Although the various colonies had been advised by London to choose a common gauge , the colonies ended up with different gauges. The Great Southern Rail , operates three trains: Since the extension of the Ghan from Alice Springs to Darwin was completed in , all mainland Australian capital cities are linked by standard gauge rail, for the first time.
In Tasmania, TasRail operates a short haul narrow gauge freight system, that carries inter-modal and bulk mining goods. TasRail is government owned by the State of Tasmania and is going through a significant below and above rail upgrades with new locomotives and wagons entering service.
Significant bridge and sleeper renewal has also occurred. Six heavy-duty mining railways carry iron ore to ports in the northwest of Western Australia. These railways carry no other traffic, and are isolated by deserts from all other railways. The lines are standard gauge and are built to the heaviest US standards. A common carrier railway was proposed to serve the port of Oakajee just north of Geraldton , but this was later cancelled after a collapse in the iron ore price.
Projects under construction or planned: Between and paddle steamers were used extensively on the Murray-Darling Basin to transport produce, especially wool and wheat, to river ports such as Echuca , Mannum and Goolwa. However, the water levels of the inland waterways are highly unreliable, making the rivers impassable for large parts of the year.
A system of locks was created largely to overcome this variability but the steamers were unable to compete with rail, and later, road transport. Traffic on inland waterways is now largely restricted to private recreational craft. In , the Australian fleet consisted of 53 ships of 1, gross tonnage or over.
Over recent years the number of Australian registered and flagged ships has greatly declined, from 75 ships in to less than 40 in , by the number is now approaching Marine unions blame the decline on the shipping policy of the Howard Government which permitted foreign ships to carry coastal traffic.
There have also been cases where locally operated ships have Australian flag from the vessel, registering it overseas under a flag of convenience , then hiring foreign crews who earn up to about half the monthly rate of Australian sailors. Qantas is the flag carrier of Australia. The Australian National Airways was the predominant domestic carrier from the mids to the early s. The Two Airlines Policy was establish to protect both airlines.
The duopoly continued of the next four decades. In the mid s Qantas was merged with TAA and later privatised.
Ansett collapsed in September In the following years, Virgin Australia became a challenger to Qantas.
List of Melbourne railway stations List of Melbourne railway lines.
Archived from the original on 24 April